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04 October 2019 : Original article  

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Ubiquitin-Related Genes were Associated with Allograft Fibrosis of Renal Transplant Fibrosis

Zeping Gui1ABCDEF, Wencheng Li2AB, Shuang Fei1CD, Miao Guo3CD, Hao Chen1CD, Li Sun1CD, Zhijian Han1CD, Jun Tao1CD, Xiaobin Ju1CD, Haiwei Yang1CD, Ji-Fu Wei3CD, Ruoyun Tan1CDFG*, Min Gu1CDG

DOI: 10.12659/AOT.917767

Ann Transplant 2019; 24:553-568

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) have been recognized as crucial factors contributing to graft loss resulting from chronic renal allograft injuries. Recent studies have indicated a significant association between the progression of organ fibrosis and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found on certain genes. Our research sought to understand these potential associations and detect the potential impact of SNPs on ubiquitin-related genes related to allograft fibrosis in kidney transplant recipients.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 200 patients enrolled in this study, from which samples were extracted for total DNA. Targeted next-generation sequencing was used to detect SNPs on 9 genes (FBXL21, PIAS1/2, SUMO1/2/3/4, UBE2D1, and UBE2I). Minor allele frequency (MAF) and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) tests were used and followed by linkage disequilibrium analysis. General linear models (GLM) were used to identify significant confounding factors. Finally, multiple inheritance models and haplotype analyses were conducted to explore associations between SNPs and the degree of the severity of renal allograft fibrosis.

RESULTS: In total, 144 SNPs were identified in targeted sequencing. After filtering based on results from MAF and HWE tests, 15 tagger SNPs were selected for further analyses of associations. GLMs indicated that the administration of sirolimus significantly contributed to the degree of severity of allograft fibrosis (P=0.011). After adjusting for confounding factors and applying a Bonferroni correction, multiple inheritance model analyses indicated that the recessive model of rs644731 of the PIAS2 gene was significantly correlated with the occurrence of IF/TA (P=0.01). Furthermore, single-locus based analysis of rs644731 did not indicate that it had a positive influence on IF/TA in a degree-dependent manner. Finally, linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed 3 haplotypes all lacking significant correlation with respect to the IF/TA experimental cohort.

CONCLUSIONS: We are the first to reveal that mutations of rs644731 in the PIAS2 gene were significantly correlated with the progression of IF/TA in kidney transplant recipients.

Keywords: Kidney Transplantation, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Ubiquitins

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Annals of Transplantation eISSN: 2329-0358
Annals of Transplantation eISSN: 2329-0358