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05 February 2013

Dose-normalization for exposure to mycophenolic acid and the early clinical outcome in patients taking tacrolimus after heart transplantation

Jun-Neng RoanABCDEF, Chen-Hsi ChouABCDE, Chih-Hsin HsuBCD, Shuan-Yin WuBCF, Yu-Ching HuangB, Yu-Jen YangD, Chwan-Yau LuoABCEFG

DOI: 10.12659/AOT.883812

Ann Transplant 2013; 18:43-52


BACKGROUND: The early phase of MPA exposure has rarely been investigated after solid organ transplantation, especially in heart transplantation patients. We evaluated the association between exposure to mycophenolic acid (MPA), a main metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and clinical events within 3 months after heart transplantation.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Trough (C0) and area under the curve (AUC)0–12h levels of MPA and its metabolite, mycophenolic acid glucuronide (MPAG), were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Corresponding clinical endpoints included acute rejection or MMF-related adverse events (gastrointestinal symptoms, leucopenia, and anemia). AUC measurements (n=77) were collected from 21 patients. Dose-normalized C0 and AUC0–12h levels were used to evaluate the association between MPA or MPAG exposure and MMF-related adverse events.

RESULTS: No acute rejection or mortality occurred during the follow-up period. Twelve patients (57%) developed 13 MMF-related adverse events. The MMF dose was tapered from 2.50 g/day on D1 to 1.55±0.54 g/day on D90. Significantly higher levels of dose-normalized MPA C0 and AUC0–12h were associated with the events than with the absence of the events (C0: 1.04±0.42 vs. 0.84±0.85 µg/mL/g [p=0.047]; AUC0–12h: 20.37±3.21 vs. 14.97±1.13 µg × h/mL/g; [p=0.038]).

CONCLUSIONS: Dose-normalized MPA exposure may protect against MMF toxicity in the early stage after heart transplantation. The MMF dose can be decreased to near 1.5 g/day 3 months post-transplantation without jeopardizing patient safety; a well-planned, tapered MMF regimen should also be considered.

Keywords: mycophenolic acid exposure, Area Under Curve, Adverse events, Heart Transplantation

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Annals of Transplantation eISSN: 2329-0358
Annals of Transplantation eISSN: 2329-0358