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17 June 2013

Pretreatment of liver grafts in vivo by γ-aminobutyric acid receptor regulation reduces cold ischemia/warm reperfusion injury in rat

Tomohide HoriBCDEFG, Lindsay B. GardnerBCDF, Toshiyuki HataBCDF, Feng ChenBDF, Ann-Marie T. BaineBDF, Shinji UemotoDG, Justin H. NguyenADFG

DOI: 10.12659/AOT.883955

Ann Transplant 2013; 18:299-313

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is found throughout the body. The regulation of GABA receptor (GABAR) reduces oxidative stress (OS). Ischemia/reperfusion injury after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) causes OS-induced graft damage. The effects of GABAR regulation in donors in vivo were investigated.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Donor rats received saline, a GABAR agonist or GABAR antagonist 4 h before surgery. Recipient rats were divided into four groups according to the donor treatments: laparotomy, OLT with saline, OLT with GABAR agonist and OLT with GABAR antagonist. Histopathological, biochemical and immunohistological examinations were performed at 6, 12 and 24 h after OLT. Protein assays were performed at 6 h after OLT. The 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM), phosphorylated histone H2AX (gammaH2AX), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed by western blot analysis.

RESULTS: In the univariate analysis, histopathological and biochemical profiles verified that the GABAR agonist reduced graft damage. Immunohistology revealed that the GABAR agonist prevented the induction of apoptosis. Measurement of 4-4-HNE levels confirmed OS-induced damage after OLT, and the GABAR agonist improved this damage. In the gammaH2AX, PI3K, Akt and antioxidant enzymes (SODs), ATM and H2AX were greatly increased after OLT, and were reduced by the GABAR agonist. In the multivariate analyses between multiple groups, histopathological assessment, aspartate aminotransferase level, immunohistological examinations for apoptotic induction and gammaH2AX showed statistical differences.

CONCLUSIONS: A specific agonist demonstrated regulation of GABAR in vivo in the liver. This activation in vivo reduced OS after OLT via the ATM/H2AX pathway.

Keywords: liver , Reperfusion Injury, Free Radicals, cold ischemia, warm reperfusion

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Annals of Transplantation eISSN: 2329-0358
Annals of Transplantation eISSN: 2329-0358