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08 January 2014 : Original article  

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A single-center experience

Lan LuoBCDEF, Lin ZhangBD, Bo CaiBD, Honghua LiBD, Wenrong HuangBD, Yu JingBD, Haiyan ZhuBD, Yu ZhaoBD, Jian BoBD, Quanshun WangBD, Xiaoping HanBD, Li YuBD, Chunji GaoAG

DOI: 10.12659/AOT.889683

Ann Transplant 2014; 19:6-12

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a rare and serious complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) or solid organ transplantation.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the occurrence of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in allo-HSCT recipients over 12 years in a single center in China. A total of 343 patients received allo-HSCT. The conditioning therapy consisted of a busulfan/cyclophosphamide-based regimen, a fludarabine/cyclophosphamide-based regimen, or total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide. In transplantations from unrelated donors and haplo-identical donors, patients also received antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or thymoglobulin as part of the conditioning.

RESULTS: Five of the 343 patients (1.46%) were diagnosed with PTLD and all 5 were given ATG as part of conditioning. Among these 5 patients, 4 had lymphoid neoplasm before transplantation. EBV-positivity was confirmed in 4 patients. All 5 PTLD patients received reduction of immunosuppression (RI) as fundamental therapy. At follow-up on April 1, 2013, 1 patient had survived for 2 years and 1 had survived for 9 years. The correlation of PTLD with ATG and underlying diseases were examined by statistical analysis using the chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test (P=0.011 and 0.025, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Although only 1.46% of patients progressed to PTLD associated with ATG and underlying diseases, the mortality was still high. Moreover, RI can be an effective therapy for PTLD patients, but other approaches should be further explored.

Keywords: allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, antithymocyte globulin, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

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Annals of Transplantation eISSN: 2329-0358
Annals of Transplantation eISSN: 2329-0358