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18 February 2020 : Original article  

Sleep Quality and Psychosocial Factors in Liver Transplant Recipients at an Outpatient Follow-Up Clinic in China

Xiao Zhu1ABCDEF, Yingzi Ming1ABCDEF*, Jia Liu1ABEG, Lifang Liu1AB, Ke Cheng1BC, Ping Mao12B

DOI: 10.12659/AOT.920984

Ann Transplant 2020; 25:e920984

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is a common problem in liver transplant recipients, but few studies have confirmed the psychosocial factors associated with sleep quality in patients after liver transplantation. This study aimed to identify the psychosocial factors related to sleep quality among liver transplant patients during outpatient follow-up.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed in 124 liver transplant patients during outpatient follow-up. All participants completed a general demographic questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale (GAD-7), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and the perceived social support scale (PSSS).

RESULTS: The mean global PSQI score was 6.57 (SD, 4.28), which was significantly higher than the mean score for people with normal sleep quality; 50 (40.3%) recipients were classified as having poor sleep quality (PSQI >7). Among the self-reported sleep problems, 62 (50.0%) participants reported that they had to go to the bathroom at night, 58 (43.5%) woke up in the middle of the night or early morning, 84 (67.7%) reported depression symptoms, and 116 (93.5%) had low-level social support. The global PSQI score was positively correlated with anxiety and depression scores, while the global PSSS score was negatively correlated with anxiety and depression scores (p<0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the length of the post-liver transplant period, the type of residence, BMI, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms were important factors affecting sleep quality among liver transplant patients (p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed high prevalence and incidence of poor sleep quality in liver transplant recipients in outpatient follow-up, with significant correlations with anxiety, depression, and social support, and it was affected by multiple factors. This indicates a need for further research on the follow-up results of sleep and the benefits of comprehensive interventions involving psychosocial factors in liver transplant recipients in China.

Keywords: Liver Transplantation, Outpatients, Psychology, Sleep, Anxiety, Cross-Sectional Studies, Incidence, Postoperative Complications, Prevalence, Quality of Life, Sleep Wake Disorders, Social Support, Surveys and Questionnaires, young adult

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Annals of Transplantation eISSN: 2329-0358
Annals of Transplantation eISSN: 2329-0358