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15 March 2024 : Review article  

[In Press] Approaches and Challenges in the Current Management of Cytomegalovirus in Transplant Recipients: Highlighting the Role of Advanced Practice Providers (Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants)

Willa V. Cochran12ABCDEF, M. Veronica Dioverti2E, Julie Langlee1AE, Lindsay N. Barker2E, Audra Shedeck3E, Lindsay P. Toman4AE, Robin K. Avery ORCID logo2AEF

DOI: 10.12659/AOT.941185

Ann Transplant In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AOT.941185  

Available online: 2024-03-15, In Press, Corrected Proof

Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule


Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) and solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, with traditional anti-CMV therapies limited by their associated toxicities and the development of resistance. Clinical providers are often faced with challenging and complicated CMV infections that require multiple courses of antiviral therapies. Increasingly, advanced practice providers (APPs) are playing an important role in the day-to-day management of transplant recipients with CMV infection, including resistant/refractory CMV and other complex CMV syndromes.
Here, we provide an overview of current preventative and treatment strategies for CMV infection in HCT and SOT recipients, highlighting the challenging aspects of current management and the potential utility of newer antiviral agents. This article also focuses on how a multidisciplinary team, orchestrated by APPs, can improve CMV-associated patient outcomes.
Protocols using antiviral agents for the prevention or treatment of CMV infections require carefully designed and meticulously implemented strategies to ensure the best clinical outcomes for patients. APPs, who have increasingly become the frontline providers of outpatient care for transplant recipients, are ideally positioned to design and carry out these protocols.

Keywords: Antiviral Agents; Cytomegalovirus; Transplantation

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Annals of Transplantation eISSN: 2329-0358
Annals of Transplantation eISSN: 2329-0358