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03 April 2024 : Review article  

[In Press] Alternative Therapies in Transplantology as a Promising Perspective in Medicine

Natasza Michalska1E, Ewa Totoń ORCID logo1E, Przemysław Kopczyński ORCID logo2E, Magdalena Jankowska-Wajda ORCID logo3E, Błażej Rubiś ORCID logo1A

DOI: 10.12659/AOT.943387

Ann Transplant In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AOT.943387  

Available online: 2024-04-03, In Press, Corrected Proof

Publication in the "In-Press" formula aims at speeding up the public availability of the pending manuscript while waiting for the final publication. The assigned DOI number is active and citable. The availability of the article in the Medline, PubMed and PMC databases as well as Web of Science will be obtained after the final publication according to the journal schedule


Despite continuous and rapid progress in the transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs, many patients die before receiving them. This is because of an insufficient number of donors, which leads to a significant disproportion between the need for donors and their availability. This review aims to present the possibilities offered by alternative therapies. We use the term “functional transplantology” to describe such alternative methods of transplantation that could help change the current state of transplantation medicine. Its purpose is not to replace a defective or removed organ with another but to replace its functions using complementary biological, mechanical, or biomechanical structures or devices. Implementation of many innovative solutions shown in the work for clinical applications is already a fact. In the case of others, it should be considered a future vision. We hope that the role of a defective or damaged tissue or a group of tissues will be taken over by different structures that are functionally complementary with the organ being substituted. Undoubtedly, developing the described methods based on functional transplantology will change the face of transplantation medicine. Thus, we show current trends and new directions of thinking and actions in transplantation medicine that combine technology and transplantology. The review considers the latest technologies, including 3D bioprinting, nanotechnology, cell encapsulation, and organoids. We discuss not only the advantages of new approaches but also the limitations and challenges that must be overcome to achieve significant progress in transplantation. That is the only option to provide a safe and efficient way of improving the quality of life of many patients.

Keywords: Bioprinting; Cell Encapsulation; Organoids; Cell Transplantation; Organoids; Nanotechnology

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Alternative Therapies in Transplantology as a Promising Perspective in Medicine

Ann Transplant In Press; DOI: 10.12659/AOT.943387  

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Annals of Transplantation eISSN: 2329-0358
Annals of Transplantation eISSN: 2329-0358